Thursday, November 25, 2010

How free software/open source means never being unsupported

The strangest aspect of promoting free software (software that has been freed, as opposed to software available for no money), also known as open source, is that many people are concerned about the lack of support. "If we switch to Ubuntu", argues the skeptic, "we don't have the support of a giant corporation like Microsoft if things go wrong."

I'm going to give a contrary view, and use my experience with Android, the popular free software operating system for touchscreen smartphones, as a great example of how wrong this view is in practice.

My conversion to GNU/Linux

But before I do, let me explain my history a little. My first computers ran proprietary operating systems. I bought a computer from Sinclair (called a QL), and then a computer from Commodore (called an Amiga), both of which suffered from a substantial lack of support. The issues were different in both cases: Sinclair went bust, and was bought out by a company, Amstrad, that had no interest in the computer I'd bought. It was discontinued, as was all support. Commodore suffered with financing and mismanagement issues, and while the technical people at Commodore put together an extraordinary device, it became clear after a while that the platform itself - despite being decades ahead of the competition technically - had no future. What support there was was third party.

After Commodore went bankrupt, I faced a choice of jumping ship again to yet another proprietary product vendor, which would probably have been Microsoft, who was producing a software product I considered inferior to what I already had, or going in a different direction. I choose the fledgling GNU/Linux platform, buying some cheap hardware to experiment with, and eventually using it as my primary system.

My needs were relatively modest and non-mainstream in the beginning, and so the lack of support from hardware manufacturers and big software companies wasn't an issue. Over time, the community around GNU/Linux filled in the gaps. Drivers for even relatively obscure devices started to be written, and the software infrastructure issues - the need to be able to open the occasional Word document or Excel spreadsheet - started to be filled in by free software/open source enthusiasts who reverse engineered these file formats and created full applications able to handle them.

Still, in the early part of the 21st Century, GNU/Linux still seemed awkward and difficult to work with, and my own needs required something more integrated with the rest of the world. So, with Mac OS X looking increasingly good, I bought a Mac and used Macs for a few years.

And then I switched back to GNU/Linux. Why? Because the Mac was constricting. Because support wasn't what I thought it would be. To do something as simple as using the "latest" version of Java (which in Apples case was always at least a year behind), I'd have to upgrade to the latest version of Mac OS X, which in turn would only run on some of my hardware, and which, to be quite frank with you, I didn't even like much. I could not run the operating system on a Thinkpad, despite disliking the Powerbook hardware and pointing device. I was reliant on Apple for certain core software, for all hardware, and there was only a limited amount third parties could do to fix the gaps.

In the mean time, the major issues with GNU/Linux were resolved, because they could be! The system was entirely open, anyone could fix the issues, and so people did. A community of developers, including some provided by major corporations like Novell, IBM, and Redhat worked together on a graphical user interface called GNOME 2, that made the system slick and easy to use. Canonical worked on putting together a package that could install on virtually any hardware and provide a default environment that was feature full and easy to use, and called it Ubuntu. All of these organizations were able to do this because the system was free, because it was entirely open, nobody had to ask the permission of anyone else to work on this, and as long as people wanted support, the support would be there.

And now we're at the stage where Ubuntu, the most popular desktop variant of GNU/Linux, is arguably a better package over all, for the majority of people, than either Mac OS X or Windows, being, arguably, more functional than either, and being close in terms of ease of use to the former.


My first Android phone I bought a whole six months ago. The phone is a T-Mobile myTouch 3G Slide, which I bought because I was buying my wife one, because it had exceptional reviews, and because I didn't know the G2 was just around the corner. The Slide is a fairly capable phone, but there are a number of issues with the operating system on it - certain apps, such as the phone, crash regularly, the Bluetooth headset support is virtually unusable (you can't use voice dialing through the headset, for example, and even if you did you have to interact with the phone's touchscreen to "confirm" the operation you requested. Oh, and just to add insult to injury, the voice dialer "recognizes" commands like "Turn off Bluetooth", which it does without asking for confirmation!), and so on. The version of Android running is 2.1, a recent and respectable release, but nothing to write home about.

HTC released an update in August that fixed some bugs in the phone, but left the headline issues above still very much alive. The next step was to hope that HTC would get around to fixing the issues with the next operating system update, perhaps fixing them if and when it releases Android 2.2.

Well, that's what my option would have been had Android been proprietary. After all, that's what I'd have to put up with if I had an iPhone, or webOS phone, or Blackberry, or Windows Mobile phone. In all of these cases, I'd be dependent upon three things:

  • The maker of the operating system (Apple, Palm/HP, RIM, or Microsoft) fixing the bug if it's their bug.
  • The maker of the phone (Apple, RIM, or one of a swathe of third parties) fixing the bug if it's a bug they themselves introduced when customizing the operating system to work with their product.
  • The maker of the phone actually planning to release an update, and getting the update out.
But this is Android, and Android is free software, and quite frankly, there are a lot of people from the free software/open source worlds that simply aren't willing to rely upon third parties to support them. They're like me - people who have relied upon companies like Sinclair, Commodore, Apple, and even Microsoft, to provide them with what they need, only to be let down again and again and again and again - and these people have said "You know, let's take Android, let's fix the issues that bother us, and share our fixes with the rest of the world."

My phone hasn't been running the stock HTC Android operating system for several months now. Instead, I've been running something called CyanogenMod. CyanogenMod is a third party variant of Android, where a developer called Steve Kondik (he uses the online nick "Cyanogen", hence the name), and other like minded developers, have taken Android, fixed the headline issues they consider important, and ported this version to as many devices as they can.

What's the result? Well, with this latest version (CyanogenMod 6.1RC2), every major issue I had with the Slide's operating system is fixed. The system is stable, all the apps work, Bluetooth headsets work properly (including voice dialing), and I also have the benefit of running a more recent version of Android, 2.2, that includes some nice new features like easy "tethering" to a laptop or similar device.

If that were all there is to it, that would be very positive all by itself: I've had issues fixed that those reliant upon HTC are still waiting for. But, in fact, the benefits are actually greater. The first Android phone was the G1 (also known as the HTC Dream), which is barely two years old. HTC stopped supporting this around a year ago, which means owners reliant upon HTC for updates are out of luck if they want a more recent version of the operating system, or any severe bugs fixed.

The same will, ultimately, happen to most of our devices. Now, I'm drooling over various Android phones, and wouldn't mind an upgrade, but I've only had this one for six months, and like most real people, I don't want to spend $400-500 on a new phone every few months. Most people keep their devices for at least two years. So the knowledge that, in all seriousness, it's very unlikely HTC will release updates for my phone in six months from now, is somewhat disconcerting. Or would be if I were reliant upon HTC.

And again, if I was using a proprietary operating system, I would be reliant upon HTC. Those buying a Windows phone right now will find it impossible to get updates a year from now - not without buying new hardware.

But plenty of people with G1s are running Android 2.2, despite HTC cutting off the air. They're able to do this because Cyanogen, and others, have released versions of their variants of Android for the G1. As long as the hardware is capable of running it, and people are still using the phones in question, you will see ports of the latest versions of Android for these phones, because the phones are supportable.

And that's the key word: supportable. Free software makes hardware supportable. Proprietary software means that only a small group of people can support something, and only companies with unlimited resources (and no agendas!) will ever provide unlimited support.

Interested? You can find information about CyanogenMod here. The CyanogenMod operating system is only available for a subset of Android devices, you can check the Wiki for the full list. But if it runs now on a device now, then that device is, by definition, supportable.

If support is one of your priorities, you need to ask yourself what kind of support you need: the support of people with the same concerns as you? Or the support of someone who benefits from putting you on an upgrade treadmill, and who may, in time, decide it's just not worth the effort.

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